Welcome to

Madison, Morgan County, Georgia   

 

 

Georgia Pecans

 

Georgia Grown - Pecans
(MORE... Georgia Grown - Pecans)


Pecans

Pecans have been an important part of southern diet and culture since before the arrival of European settlers. The first successful grafts of the pecan tree were done in 1846 by a Louisiana plantation gardener. The cultivation of the pecan tree increased, and the technique of sowing proved to be the most effective.

Today the tree is most widely cultivated in the states of New Mexico, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida and Texas, where the pecan tree is the official state tree.

Georgia is the nation's largest supplier of pecans, with more than half the total U.S. production.

An average pecan harvest is about 100 million pounds. In 2001 the crop was 95 million pounds and in 1993, the crop weighed in at a record 150 million pounds.

The state's major pecan-producing region is near Albany, in south-central Georgia, although there are large and small orchards from Atlanta southward.

Pecans are often associated with the traditional pie or pralines but they are used in a variety of recipes, from cookies and desserts to salads and main dishes. Pecans can replace just about any nut in cookies.

Pecans are available in many forms; you'll find them vacuum- packed in jars, sealed in plastic bags, or packed in cans. For the freshest and most flavorful pecans, choose whole ones in the shell; look for nuts that are heavy for their size and don't rattle when shaken. There shouldn't be any cracks or holes in the shells. When you buy shelled pecans, look for a date on the bag or container. Shelled pecans absorb odors and turn rancid quickly, and should be stored in the refrigerator in a sealed container.

Pecans can be stored in the freezer for up to two years, so if you buy more than you can use right away, store them in a moisture-proof plastic bag in the freezer. Unshelled pecans may be stored for about 3 months at room temperature.

Even though pecans have a high fat content, they're a good source of potassium, thiamine, zinc, copper, magnesium, phosphorous, niacin, folic acid, iron, and vitamin B6, they are also a good source of fiber.

Pecans are rich in oleic acid, a mono-unsaturated fat believed to help in preventing heart disease.

------------

Pecan History

During the late 1800's landowners began to recognize the potential profit of pecans in the southeastern United States . By the late 1800's several individuals near Savannah, Georgia had produced and marketed pecans on a small scale. By 1889 there were only 97 acres of pecans planted in Georgia .

Thousands of acres of pecan trees were planted in Southwest Georgia between 1910 and 1925. Most of these trees were initially planted as real estate investments rather than for nut production. Thousands of acres were sold in five and ten acre units, primarily in Dougherty and Mitchell Counties , which are still today the hub of Georgia's pecan producing counties. By 1920, Georgia was producing 2.5 million pounds of pecans.

By the 1950's Georgia was ranked as the top state in the nation for pecan production.

Today, Georgia pecan orchards may range in size from just a few trees to several thousand acres. The state continues to be regarded as the top pecan producing state in the U.S. , with over 140,000 acres planted to pecans. An early harvest date compared to other areas of the nation which produce pecans, often results in good prices for Georgia pecan growers, who produced $128,499,337 in farm gate value during 2007.

Although the pecan has a long history in North America, Georgia farmers were relative latecomers in realizing the benefits of this tree nut. By the 1950s, however, Georgia had become the country's leading producer of pecans. As of 2006 Georgia remains the largest pecan-producing state in the nation.

Pecan (Carya illinoensis) is a common name for a species of hickory in the walnut (Juglandaceae) family. According to archaeological and historical evidence, Asian species of the hickory tree arrived in North America before the first humans crossed the Bering Strait from Asia about 10,000 B.C. Other species are native to the Mississippi River valley. The tree typically grows to a height of 75 to 100 feet and is well adapted to Georgia's sandy loam soil with clay subsoil. The term pecan is also applied to the tree's edible fruit. The nuts have a rounded, oblong shape and vary in weight from 25 to 100 to the pound.

While there may have been wild pecans in some of Georgia's river valleys, the nuts are generally regarded as nonnative to the state, and their value as a potential cultivated crop was not recognized until the late nineteenth century. By that time landowners began to regard pecans, long a staple of wild native trees from Iowa and Indiana to Texas and Mexico, as a commercial crop. Commercialization of pecans allowed the nut crop to expand into a number of southeastern states (including Georgia) and to New Mexico and California.

In the late 1800s several individual Georgia landowners near Savannah began producing and marketing pecans on a small scale (about ninety-seven total acres by 1889). By 1910 a "pecan boom" began when southwest Georgia landowners started planting what became thousands of acres of pecans. The orchards, however, were not looked upon as a commercial agricultural venture but as a real estate enterprise. Most of the acreage planted during the fifteen-year boom, from 1910 to 1925, were sold as five- to ten-acre units for homes or small farms. Most of this acreage was concentrated in Dougherty and Mitchell counties.

Those early-twentieth-century plantations consistently remain the center of Georgia's pecan-producing counties today. Modern orchards with plantings of scientifically improved pecan varieties now yield what are called "paper shell" pecans, so named because the nuts are easy to crack and shell.

By the 1920s Georgia was producing 2.5 million pounds of pecans. As of 2006 Georgia pecan orchards range in size from just a few trees to several thousand acres, with more than 142,500 acres planted. Georgia is also fortunate to have an early harvest date compared to other pecan-producing areas, which often results in good prices for Georgia growers. They produced about 45 million pounds in 2004 and 70 million pounds in 2005. The farm-gate value for the crop in 2004 was more than $121 million.

----------

Harvesting & Storage

Harvesting pecans occurs from mid October through November, and occasionally into December. For home harvesting, gathering falling nuts can be an option, but you usually have to fight the squirrels, who are master nut gatherers. Small harvests can be achieved by tapping limbs with a padded stick to help with nut drop, or commercially tree shakers are used. Mechanical shakers are fascinating to watch. Once secured on the trunk of the tree, they are turned on and the tree shakes rapidly, causing the nuts to drop like pelting rain. Standing nearby, even the soil vibrates. Then the nuts are gathered, removed from their outer husks and sorted. Pecan nuts lose quality very quickly on the ground, especially during wet weather, so it is important to harvest soon after shaking. Fresh pecans need to be air dried for two to three weeks before storing.

Pecans will oxidize or turn rancid more rapidly in light and out of their shell, so nuts will store longer when they are in their shell. If you don’t intend to use them right away, you may want to buy unshelled nuts. They are best stored in a cool, dry, protected location. If you plan to store them for more than a month, you might consider freezing them. For the highest quality product it is recommended that they not be stored for more than one year in the freezer, but they have been known to do fine for several years.

------

Fertilization

Proper nutrition is a key requirement for the reliable production of pecans. Like other plants, pecans require nutrients for growth and fruit production. Fertilizers supply nutrients to soils and help to correct nutrient deficiencies. Four of the six macronutrients needed by pecans are commonly deficient in Georgia soils. These include nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, and magnesium. Two of the seven micronutrients required by pecans are commonly deficient as well, zinc and iron. Recent attention has also been given to deficiencies of nickel and boron.

The single most reliable indicator of the nutritional needs of the pecan tree is the foliar or leaf analysis. Soil samples are less efficient for determining nutritional deficiencies in mature orchards, but are quite useful for monitoring soil pH and lime requirements. Leaf analysis is more sensitive to changes in nutrient supply because it measures amounts of specific nutrients in the leaves. Leaves should be sampled for analysis between July 7 and August 7 as this is the period in which nutrient concentrations in the leaves are most stable. Nutrient Sufficiency levels are given in table 1.
 
 

Table 1. Sufficiency levels for essential elements.
 

 
  Element Sufficiency Range

N (%) 2.5-3.3
P (%) 0.18-0.2
K (%) 1.3-2.5
Mg (%) 0.35-0.6
Ca (%) 1.3-1.75
S (%) 0.25-0.5
Zn (ppm) 50-100
Fe (ppm) 50-300
Mn (ppm) 100-800
B (ppm) 15-50
Cu (ppm) 6-30
Ni (ppm) 5-15
 


Nitrogen

Nitrogen is the element that most commonly limits pecan growth and ultimately orchard profitability. It provides better tree growth, a higher percent kernel, and a healthier tree. When properly maintained, nitrogen can help to provide optimal year to year production. Nitrogen deficiencies result in poor growth and poor tree health. Too much nitrogen stimulates excess foliage, shading, and in some instances reduced yield. The key to nitrogen management is to balance applications with the needs of the tree.

The management of nitrogen fertilization in the pecan orchard will vary for irrigated versus non-irrigated orchards and from one year to the next within a given orchard, depending upon crop load. Nitrogen uptake in the pecan tree is driven by demand. There are two critical periods of nitrogen demand during the season; (1) early foliage growth and (2) kernel filling. The early spring foliage flush is nourished primarily from reserves held within the tree, while the nitrogen demand during the kernel fill stage is satisfied from an earlier application made during the current season.

In the absence of leaf sample recommendations, dry land orchards should be fertilized with 75 lbs of N in late February or early March so that winter rains will help to improve soil moisture and ultimately nitrogen uptake. For irrigated orchards, soil moisture, and thus nitrogen uptake can be more easily controlled by the grower, which provides for more efficient use of nitrogen by the tree.

Nitrogen recommendations have evolved greatly over the years. Historically, recommendations for orchards have been to apply nitrogen in March or as a split application in March and May. A general “rule of thumb” for mature, well managed, irrigated orchards is to apply 10 lbs of N /acre for every 100 lbs. of expected crop.

An alternative is to split the application between mid-spring and late summer. This timing works best for orchards bearing heavy crops and where other limiting factors are controlled. Well managed trees coming off an “off” year, begin spring foliage growth with a full supply of nutrients stored in the stems, trunk, and roots. As a result, there is little demand for nitrogen and healthy trees will not remove nitrogen from the soil at this time. A more efficient use of nitrogen may be to apply 1/3 of the nitrogen required when the shoots are 75% expanded, which generally occurs in mid to late April in Georgia.

During “off” years, the April application alone as described above is sufficient. During July, trees may be assessed with regard to their crop load. If the crop load is heavy, another 1/3 of the full rate should be applied in early August. The final 1/3 should be applied in early September to help maintain healthy foliage for optimum kernel filling, leaf retention, and ultimately adequate nutrient storage pools. For example, with an expected crop of 1500 lbs/acre, the N would be applied as 50 lbs/acre in mid-late April, 50 lbs in early August, and 50 lbs in early September.

The kernel filling process pulls nitrogen from the leaves. During an “on” year with heavy crop loads, these leaves must have soil nitrogen to remain healthy and fully functional.

Once the kernel-filling process is complete, healthy leaves will maintain sufficient nitrogen to produce stored food. Trees in the “off” cycle of production will have sufficient nitrogen and will not need late-summer applications.

Though more complex than the March or March/May applications, spring and late summer splits make for more efficient use of nitrogen by the tree and can help reduce the alternate bearing tendency in well managed orchards.

Phosphorous

Phosphorous is important for energy storage as well as the production of wood and nuts. Despite its value, phosphorous levels in Georgia soils are often adequate, and additional phosphorous should not be applied unless called for by leaf analysis. The predominant symptom of phosphorous deficiency is a dull green foliage with no intervienal chlorosis.

Such deficiencies are often over-looked and are easily mistaken for mild nitrogen deficiency. In heavy bearing varieties, phosphorous efficiency can be expressed as a marginal leaf scorch, which may begin 7-10 days before shuck split and premature defoliation. High concentrations of phosphorous can inhibit the uptake of nitrogen, as well as iron, zinc and copper, by the pecan tree.

Phosphorous is relatively immobile in the soil, so single application of 60-100 lbs of P2O5 incorporated at planting can last for several years. Subsequent applications as needed should also be incorporated because surface applications may require several years to be of benefit to the orchard. Applications should be made any time leaf levels fall below 0.12 percent.

Potassium

Potassium is essential for the movement of carbohydrates, regulation of osmosis, and the activation of enzymes within the pecan tree. The resistance of pecan trees to winter injury is also heavily influenced by potassium levels.

Maintaining an appropriate balance of nitrogen and potassium within the tree is of vital importance. If leaf potassium content is near minimum levels, heavy nitrogen applications will induce a visible potassium shortage termed nitrogen scorch. Nitrogen scorch can lead to serious defoliation, which appears first on the basal shoots and leaves, progressing upward. Scorched areas occur along the leaf margins, and are circular or oblong and about the size of a dime. Desirable, and to some extent, Schley trees are often especially sensitive to the nitrogen-potassium imbalance.

Less severe symptoms of potassium deficiency begin as an irregular interveinal chlorosis. As potassium concentrations decrease through the season, the chlorosis may spread up the shoot and leaf. Necrotic spots may develop on the surface of the leaf.

Transport of potassium from the leaves to the fruit often accelerates potassium deficiencies, particularly in heavy crop years. Such deficiencies may induce premature defoliation, shoot die-back, and small, poorly filled nuts. Careful monitoring of leaf nitrogen and potassium levels is required to maintain optimal nutrition.

The most common method of supplying potassium is by soil application of muriate of potash. Rates should be based on leaf potassium and the amount of nitrogen applied.

The N/K ratio should be maintained at 2:1 for most varieties in order to prevent leaf scorch. Applications should be made in February before the onset of winter rains.

Where late summer applications of N are used, additional applications of K should be made at that time if K levels in the leaf are marginal.

Magnesium

Magnesium deficiency is relatively rare in pecan; however, it can occur in trees growing on acid or sandy soils, especially in orchards with high soil potassium levels. Magnesium deficiencies are characterized by an intervienal chlorosis , which forms a “Christmas tree” pattern on the leaf. In very severe cases, a marginal leaf scorch may follow chlorosis.

Magnesium deficiency is best prevented by maintaining soil pH at 6.0-6.3 and by the use of Dolomitic limestone as a liming material. Dolomitic limestone contains both calcium and magnesium, and generally provides an adequate amount of magnesium for most orchards. Growers will usually be able to observe increases in their leaf magnesium levels the second growing season following application. Where trees are identified as magnesium deficient, magnesium sulfate is more effective at raising leaf magnesium levels, because it is more water soluble. Deficient trees ill respond more quickly to foliar sprays of magnesium sulfate (5 lbs/100 gal) applied from the first leaf stage through July, but soil application of magnesium will still be necessary to maintain adequate levels in orchard soils.

Zinc

Zinc has a major influence on the economic return of a pecan operation due to its effect on flowering, fruit size, leaf efficiency, and nut yield. It is particularly important to leaf expansion and shoot elongation. As a result, zinc must be available to the tree at these specific times during the growing season. The most familiar characteristic of zinc deficiency is pecan rosette, which begins as chlorosis and curling of young leaves, resulting in a wavy leaf margin. Additional symptoms may be a rosette pattern, narrow leaves, and terminal die-back.

Even with adequate soil levels, the availability of zinc in the soil depends upon soil pH, nitrogen, and phosphorous application. Liming soils with marginal zinc levels can reduce zinc uptake, particularly when nitrogen and phosphorous are applied in combination with lime. Zinc can usually be maintained at adequate levels under a liming program on acid soils if zinc is also applied. One advantage of soil applied zinc is that one application should provide an adequate supply of available zinc for many years to come.

Zinc moves slowly in the soil, requiring two or more years for a surface application to become effective. Therefore, foliar zinc applications are the most effective means of correcting the problem when deficiencies occur. Three to six applications per season are normally recommended, depending on the severity of the deficiency, with the first spray being applied about two weeks after bud break. Sprays should be applied at 2 week intervals over the period of shoot elongation. Foliar zinc should be applied anytime leaf concentrations fall below 50 ppm or when visible symptoms of zinc deficiency are present. For rates to apply, see the current pecan spray guide.

Iron

As a component of chlorophyll, iron is essential to the process of photosynthesis. Iron deficiency rarely occurs from lack of iron in the soil, but is induced by over-liming, cold, wet spring weather, or high concentrations of zinc, phosphorous, or manganese in the soil. The deficiency generally occurs early in the growing season, and clears up as the season progresses.

Symptoms of iron deficiency look similar to nitrogen deficiency, exhibiting chlorosis of the leaf. The interveinal chlorosis in iron deficiency sometimes retains very pronounced green veins. Also, with iron deficiency, young leaves are the first to be affected. Depending upon the cause of iron deficiency, correction may take varying routes, including foliar applications of iron, changing the amount of lime applied to the orchard, or foregoing phosphorous applications. In most cases, the problem will clear up as the season progresses, especially when due to cool, wet spring conditions.

(MORE... Georgia Grown - Pecans)

 

 

 

©2007 Harper Farms

 

©2007 Harper Farms